Top Hardware & Networking Interview Questions & Answers

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hardware networking interview questions
 

Hardware and networking engineers are the core members of any organisation’s IT team. They are responsible for implementing, maintaining, supporting, developing and, in some cases, designing communication networks within an organisation or between organisations. Their goal is to ensure the integrity of high availability network infrastructure to provide maximum performance for their users.

Companies look for expert professionals who can handle their networking requirements efficiently. There are a lot of opportunities for such professionals in the industry and if you want to boost your career, you should definitely think of going for a certification course in networking, like CCNA or CompTIA. There are various courses depending on the level of expertise – beginner, intermediate or advanced.

Getting a job is not easy and the competition is high nowadays. You have to be well-prepared to crack a Networking job interview.

Here are some of the probable Hardware and Networking Interview questions that may be asked in a hardware and networking interview:

 

Q1. What are the two types of transmission technology available?

    Ans. The two types of transmission technology are – broadcast and point-to-point.

 

Q2. What is a ‘subnet’?

Ans. A ‘subnet’ is a generic term for a section of a large network, usually separated by a bridge or a router.

 

Q3. What is DNS?

Ans. The Domain Name System (DNS) is a central part of the Internet, providing a way to match names (a website you’re seeking) to numbers (the address for the website). Anything connected to the Internet – laptops, tablets, mobile phones, and websites – has an Internet Protocol (IP) address made up of numbers.

 

Q4. Explain ‘hidden shares’.

Ans. A hidden or an administrative share is a network share that is not visible when viewing another computer’s shares.

Q5. How many layers are there in the OSI model? Name them

Ans. There are 7 layers – physical, data link, network, transport, session, presentation, and application.

 

Also Read>> Cloud Computing: The good and the bad!!

 

Q6. What is a ‘client’ and ‘server’ in a network?

Ans. Clients and servers are separate logical entities that work together over a network to accomplish a task.

 

Q7. What are the different ways to exchange data?

Ans.

  • Simplex
  • Half-duplex
  • Full-duplex

 

Also Read>> Big Data and IoT : Making The Connection

 

Q8. What is a ‘frame relay’ and in which layer does it operate?

Ans. A frame relay is a packet-switching technology. It operates in the data link layer.

 

 

Q9. What is a MAC address?

Ans. A MAC (Media Access Control) address is the 48-bit hardware address of a LAN card and is usually stored in the ROM of the network adapter card and is unique.

 

Q10. What are the perquisites to configure a server?

Ans.

  • LAN card should be connected
  • Root (partition on which window is installed) should be in NTFS format
  • Server should be configured with a static IP address

 

Q11. What is ‘beaconing’?

Ans. Beaconing is the process that allows a network to self-repair networks problems.

 

Q12. Differentiate between ‘attenuation’, ‘distortion’, and ‘noise’.

Ans. When a signal travels through a medium, it loses some of its energy due to the resistance of the medium. This loss of energy is called attenuation.

When a signal travels through a medium from one point to another, it may change the form or shape of the signal. This is known as distortion.

Noise is unwanted electrical or electromagnetic energy that degrades the quality of signals and data.

 

 

Q13. What is an IP address?

Ans. An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device (e.g., computer, printer) participating in a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication.

 

Also Read>> Top Network Engineer Interview Questions & Answers

 

Q14. Differentiate between a ‘bit rate’ and ‘baud rate’.

Ans. A bit rate is the number of bits transmitted during one second, whereas, baud rate refers to the number of signal units per second that are required to represent those bits.

Baud rate = bit rate / N, where N is the no. of bits represented by each signal shift.

 

Q15. What is ‘bandwidth’?

Ans. The limited range of frequency of signals that a line can carry is called the bandwidth.

 

Q16. What is Project 802?

Ans. It is a project started by IEEE to set standards to enable intercommunication between equipment from a variety of manufacturers.

 

Q17. What is ICMP?

Ans. ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) is a network layer protocol of the TCP/IP suite used by hosts and gateways to send notification of datagram problems back to the sender.

 

Q18. What are the major types of networks?

Ans.

  • Server-based network
  • Peer-to-peer network

 

Also Read>> Cisco Certifications: CCNA Vs CCNP

 

Q19. What are the important topologies for networks?

Ans. There are three important topologies – Star, Bus and Ring.

 

Q20. Differentiate between static IP addressing and dynamic IP addressing.

Ans. In static IP addressing, a computer (or another device) is configured to always use the same IP address, whereas in dynamic IP addressing, the IP address can change periodically and is managed by a centralised network service

 

Q21. What is a LAN?

Ans. LAN stands for Local Area Network and it refers to the connection between computers and other network devices, located in proximity to each other.

 

Q22. What are routers?

Ans. Routers connect two or more network segments. These intelligent network devices store information in its routing table such as paths, hops and bottlenecks. They determine the most accurate data transfer paths and operate in Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Network Layer.

 

Q23. What is data encapsulation?

Ans. Data encapsulation is the process of breaking down information into smaller manageable chunks before their transmission across the network.

 

Q24. What is VPN?

Ans. VPN stands for Virtual Private Network. This is a connection method for adding security and privacy to private and public networks, such as Wi-Fi Hotspots and Internet. VPNs helps in establishing a secure dial-up connection to a remote server.

 

Q25. How can you secure a computer network?

Ans. There are a number of ways to achieve this.

  • Install reliable and updated anti-virus program across the network
  • Ensure firewalls are setup and configured properly
  • Monitor firewall performance
  • User authentication
  • Update passwords regularly, every quarter
  • Create a virtual private network (VPN)

 

Q26. What are proxy servers and how do they protect computer networks?

Ans. Proxy servers prevent external users to identify the IP addresses of an internal network. They make a network virtually invisible to external users, who cannot identify the physical location of a network without knowledge of the correct IP address.

 

Q27. What are Nodes and Links?

Ans.

Nodes – Devices or data points on a larger network are known as nodes. They are individual parts of a larger data structure and contain data. They also link other nodes.

Links- A link is the physical and logical network component for interconnecting hosts or nodes in a network. It is a physical communication medium such as coaxial cable or optical fiber.

 

Q28. What is SLIP?

Ans. SLIP or Serial Line Interface Protocol was developed during the early UNIX days and it is used for remote access.

 

Q29. What is TCP/IP?

Ans. TCP/IP is the short form of Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol. It is a set of protocol layers designed to facilitate data exchange on heterogeneous networks.

 

Q30. What common software problems lead to network defects?

Ans. It can be any or a combination of –

  • Application conflicts
  • Client server problems
  • Configuration error
  • Protocol mismatch
  • Security issues
  • User policy & rights issues

 

Q31. What is client/server network?

Ans. In client/server network, one or more computers act as servers. Servers offer a centralized repository of resources such as printers and files. Client refers to workstation that have an access to the server.

 

Q32. Describe networking.

Ans. Networking facilitates data communication between computers and peripherals, and it is done through wired cabling or wireless links.

 

Q33. Why is encryption on a network important?

Ans. Encryption is the process of changing data from its original readable format to an unreadable format, thus ensuring network security. It requires the user to use a secret key or password to decrypt the data.

 

Q34. What are the types of errors?

Ans. There are two categories of errors –

  • Single-bit error – One-bit error per data unit
  • Burst error – Two or more bits errors per data unit

 

Q35. What is a client server model?

Ans. Client-server model is a distributed communication framework of network processes. This framework is distributed among service requestors, clients and service providers.

 

Q36. What is TELNET?

Ans. TELNET is a client-service protocol on the Internet or local area network, allowing a user to log on to a remote device and have an access to it. Technically, it is a bidirectional interactive text-oriented communication facility, which uses a virtual terminal connection.

You probably now have a good idea of the type of questions that can be asked in a hardware and networking interview. Still, you need to be prepared to answer other types of questions that will test your interpersonal, business or methodology skills.

If you are someone who has recently started your career in networking, you can think of enhancing your skills and getting a stamp for it via a professional certification course in hardware and networking. Naukri Learning offers a comprehensive range of such courses to help you get certified for various techniques and skills needed to be an expert in the field.

Add on questions – 2

Be prepared for some specific networking interview questions too. Here are some more.

Q37.What is RIP?

It is the abbreviation for Routing Information Protocol. It is a simple protocol that exchanges information between the routers.

 

Q38.What is half-duplex?

It is the mode of communication between two devices. Here the data flows bi-directionally but simultaneously. A perfect example of a half-duplex is a walkie-talkie.

 

Q39.What is full duplex?

This is also a mode of communication between two devices and the data flow is bi-directional too, but the flow is simultaneously. Example – telephone.

 

Q40.What is netstat?

It is a command line utility program that provides information about the current Transmission Control Protocol /Internet protocol (TCP/IP) settings of a connection.

 

Q41.What is a peer-peer process?

The processes on each machine that communicate at a given layer are called peer-peer process.

 

Q42.What is anonymous FTP?

With the help of an anonymous FTP, users can be granted an access to files in public servers. Users can log in as anonymous guests, thus the name.

 

Q43.Can you explain NAT?

It stands for Network Address Translation and is a protocol that allows a network device, usually a firewall, to assign a public address to a computer/s inside a private network.

 

Q44.Can you tell me the main elements of a protocol?

This is among the very commonly asked networking interview questions. Your reply should be –

There are three main elements of a protocol –

  1. Syntax: It refers to the structure or format of the data and their order of presentation.
  2. Semantics: It specifies the meaning of each section of bits.
  3. Timing: Timing refers to two characteristics, which include the timing of data sending and the speed of data sending.

 

Q45.What is NIC?

NIC is the abbreviation for Network Interface Card. It is a peripheral card with an electronic circuitry. It is attached to a PC and connects it to a network. NIC has its own MAC address and this identifies a PC on the network.

 

Q46.What is the difference between Communication and Transmission?

Transmission – A process of sending and receiving data between source and destination, in only one way. It is regarded as the physical movement of data.

Communication – A process of sending and receiving data between source and destination, in both ways.

 

Q47.How many layers does TCP/IP have?

TCP/IP has four layers –

  • Network Layer
  • Internet Layer
  • Transport Layer
  • Application Layer

 

Q48.Explain NOS.

Short form for Network Operating System. A specialized software, that provides connectivity to a computer such that it can communicate with other computers and devices on a network.

 

Q49.What is IDEA?

IDEA is abbreviation for International Data Encryption Algorithm. It is the replacement for Data Encryption Standard (DES).

 

Q50.What is ASCII?

American Standard Code for Information Interchange.

 

Q51.What is Brouter?

Brouter is a device that functions as both a bridge and a router. It forwards data within the networks and also routes data to individual systems in a network.

 

Q52.How would you differentiate between Firewall and Antivirus?

Another popular networking interview question.

Both are security applications used in networking.

A firewall prevents any unauthorized access in the private networks as intranets. However, it does not protect against virus, spyware, or adware.

An antivirus is a software that protects a computer from any malicious software, virus, spyware, or adware.

 

Q53.How will you recover data from a Virus-infected system?

We will install an OS and updated antivirus in a system that is free of any viruses, and then connect the hard drive of the infected system as a secondary drive. Hard drive will then be scanned and cleaned. Data can now be copied into the system.

Q 54. What is ipconfig?

An acronym for Internet Protocol Configuration, Ipconfig is used on Microsoft Windows to view and configure the network interface. It displays all TCP/IP network summary information, available on a network, and helps to modify the DHCP protocol and DNS settings.

Q 55. What is ifconfig?

It is an acronym for Interface Configuration and is used on Linux, Mac, and UNIX operating systems. ifconfig configures and controls the TCP/IP network interface parameters from Command Line Interface while allowing the user to check the IP addresses of these network interfaces.

Q 56. What is the semantic gap?

A semantic gap is the difference between high-level programming sets in various computer languages and the simple computing instructions used by microprocessors.

Q 57. What is the difference between a Domain and a Workgroup?

The main difference is that where do the computer networks belong to. If it is a home network then computers will be a part of a workgroup, and if it’s a workplace network then the computers will be a part of a domain.  

Q 58. What Is NVT?

NVT stands for Network Virtual Terminal and is a representation of a basic terminal. It is used at the start of a Telnet session.

Q 59. What Is BGP?

BGP or Border Gateway Protocol is a protocol used to transfer data and information between different host gateways or autonomous systems.

Q 60. What is Round Trip Time?

Round Trip Time or RTT is the time taken to send a message from one end of a network to the other and back.

Q 61. What is 127.0.0.1 and localhost?

Localhost is the standard hostname given to the machine, and it is represented by the IP address 127.0.0.1. Therefore, we can say that 127.0.0.1 and localhost are the same thing.

Q 62. Which are the most typical functional units of the client/server applications?

The most typical functional units of the client/server applications are –

  • Presentation logic or user interface (e.g. – ATMs)
  • Business logic (e.g. – Account balance enquiry)
  • Data (e.g. – Bank account records)

Q 63. What are Triggers?

Triggers are event-driven specialized procedures and are managed by database management systems. It is capable of performing complex actions and use the procedural languages full throttle.

Q 64. What is a Gateway? 

Gateway is a hardware device that is connected to two or more networks. It may be a router, firewall, server, or any other similar device, and is capable of regulating traffic in the network.

Q 65. Is there a difference between a gateway and a router?

A gateway sends the data between two dissimilar networks, while a router sends the data between two similar networks.

Q 66. Explain 10Base-T.

10Base-T specifies data transfer rate, i.e., 10Mbps. Here the usage of the term ‘Base’ specifies ‘Baseband’ and not ‘Broadband’. T denotes the type of cable, which is a twisted pair.

Q 67. Name the user support layers

There are three types of user support layers

  • Session Layer
  • Presentation Layer and
  • Application Layer

Q 68. What is Piggy Backing?

It is the process of gaining an access to a restricted communications channel by using an already established session by another user. This technique is known to improve the efficiency of the bidirectional protocols. 

Q 69. What is the asynchronous transmission?

It is a serial mode of transmission. It is the process of data transmission where every character is a self-contained unit. Each character in asynchronous transmission has its own start and stop bits, along with an uneven interval between them.

Q 70. What is the synchronous transmission?

Synchronous transmission refers to a continuous data streaming in the form of signals, accompanied by regular timing signals. These signals are generated by external clocking mechanism and ensure that senders and receivers are in synchrony.

Q 71. What are the different types of transmission media?

Transmission media has two broad types –

  • Guided media (wired)
  • Unguided media (wireless)

Q 72. What is Process Sigma?

Process Sigma measures the frequency of a task that is performed without any error. It is expressed as a number of standard deviations on a normal distribution.

Q 73. What is FMEA?

Failure Mode Effect and Analysis or FMEA is a qualitative and systematic tool to identify potential failure modes in a system, the reasons, and their effects.

Q 74. What is backbone network?

It refers to a centralized infrastructure for distributing different routes and data to different networks. Backbone networks connect LANs and WANs.

Q 75. What is OSPF?

OSPF is an abbreviation for Open Shortest Path First. It is a routing protocol that uses a link-state routing (LSR) algorithm to find out the best possible path for data exchange.

You probably now have a good idea of the type of networking interview questions can be asked in a hardware and networking interview. Still, you need to be prepared to answer other types of interview questions that will test your interpersonal, business or methodology skills.

If you are someone who has recently started your career in networking, you can think of enhancing your skills and getting a stamp for it via a professional hardware and networking course. Naukri Learning offers a comprehensive range of courses to help you get certified for various techniques and skills needed to be an expert in the field.


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About the Author

Hasibuddin Ahmed

Hasibuddin Ahmed

Hasib is a professional writer associated with learning.naukri.com. He has written a number of articles related to technology, marketing, and career on various blogs and websites. As an amateur career guru, he often imparts nuggets of knowledge related to leadership and motivation. He is also an avid reader and passionate about the beautiful game of football.