Top Cyber Security Interview Questions and Answers

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Information security is an indispensable part of business functioning these days as these organizations collect, process, and store big chunks of data on their computer networks and devices. Cyber security is a norm for the businesses to function and save sensitive information and data. This included business secrets, intellectual property, financial data, personal information, etc., so that they don’t get exposed to any unauthorized access and impact the business badly. Cyber security is an ever-growing employment segment that requires skilled professionals who can handle the task of securing the information and data efficiently.

This write-up lists some of the popular cyber security interview questions and answers, which will help you to succeed in a cyber-security interview.


Q1. What are different types of cyber security?


Different types of cyber security are –

  • Application security
  • Cloud security
  • Data security
  • Mobile security
  • Network security
  • Database and infrastructure security
  • Disaster recovery/business continuity planning
  • Endpoint security
  • End-user education
  • Identity management


Q2. Can you tell us the difference between a threat, vulnerability, and a risk?


These are mixed up terms that need to be clearly defined –

Threat – Threats are cybersecurity events that have the potential to pose danger to information or systems.

Vulnerability – This refers to weaknesses in any system. Any system can be exploited through vulnerability

Risk – Often confused with treat, risk is main a combination of threats and losses, usually monetary ones


Q3. What is data leakage?


It refers to an unauthorized data transmission, either electronically or physically from an organization to any external destination or recipient. The most common forms of data leakage are through web, email, and mobile data storage devices.


Q4. Which factors contribute to data leakage?


The most commonly experienced factors are –

  • Outdated data security
  • Human Error
  • Technology error
  • Malware
  • Misuse
  • Physical theft of data
  • System misconfiguration
  • Inadequate security control for shared drives
  • Corrupt hard-drive
  • Unprotected data back up



Q5. How to prevent data leakage?


Since it’s a serious issue, it needs a proper strategy to tackle. Data Loss Prevention (DLP) is a practice adopted by the organizations to safeguard their data. Under this practice, users are not allowed to send confidential or sensitive information outside of the enterprise network. This requires businesses to distinguish the rules that classify confidential and sensitive information such that it doesn’t get disclosed maliciously or even accidentally by any user.


Q6. What is Security Misconfiguration?


Categorized as system vulnerability, security misconfiguration is a situation when a device/application/network is misconfigured and is prone to exploited by an attacker. A few simple examples of this include leaving systems unattended at public places, sharing passwords of devices and accounts, etc.


Q7. What is CIA Triangle?


CIA triangle is a model for guiding information security policies in any organization. It stands for –

Confidentiality – Maintaining the secrecy of the information

Integrity – Keeping the information unchanged

Availability – Ensuring an all-time availability of the information to the authorized


Also Read>> Cloud Computing: The good and the bad!!


Q8. What are the ways that a malicious user would crack any password?


The most common password cracking techniques are –

  • Dictionary attacks
  • Brute forcing attacks
  • Hybrid attacks
  • Syllable attacks
  • Rule based attacks
  • Rainbow table attacks
  • Phishing
  • Social engineering
  • Shoulder surfing
  • Spidering
  • Guessing


Q9. Name some of the common password cracking tools.


It is a part of ethical hacking, and some of the commonly used password cracking tools are –

  • Aircrack-NG
  • Brutus
  • Cain and Abel
  • DaveGrohl
  • ElcomSoft
  • Hashcat
  • Hydra
  • John the Ripper
  • RainbowCrack
  • Wfuzz


Q10. What is Cryptography?


Cryptography is a combination of two words, which are “crypt” meaning “hidden” and “graphy” meaning “writing.” This is a practice to securing information and communication using codes, and can only be accessible to those who are authorized to read and process it.


Q11. What is XSS attack?


Cross-site Scripting (XSS) is another type of vulnerability that can be technically described as a client-side code injection attack. In this particular attack, an attacker injects malicious data into vulnerable websites. Attack happens when a user visits the web page, as malicious code is then executed. This attack is very harmful for the web application users.


Q12. What are different types of XSS attacks?


There are three types of XSS attacks –

(i) Non-Persistent XSS attack – Here the data injected by attacker is reflected in the response and has a link with the XSS vector

(ii) Persistent XSS attack – Most harmful type of attack, where the script executes automatically the moment a user opens the page

(iii) Document Object Model (DOM)-based XSS attack – An advanced type of XSS attack which happens when a web application writes data to the DOM without any sanitization


Also Read>>What Is ITIL And What Are The Benefits Of An ITIL Certification?


Q13. Can you explain the ways to prevent an XSS attack?


Yes, we can prevent XSS attacks through three ways –

(i) Escaping – It is the process of stripping out unwanted data to secure the output.

(ii) Validating Input – This step ensures that the application is interpreting correct data, while preventing any malicious data from entering.

(iii) Sanitizing – This process involves cleaning or filtering your input data. It also changes unacceptable user input to an acceptable format.


Q14. Explain the difference between Symmetric and Asymmetric encryption.


Symmetric encryption – A conventional Encryption method, executed by one secret ‘Symmetric Key’ possessed by both parties. This key is used to encode and decode the information. Symmetric encryption is carried out using algorithms like AES, DES, 3DES, RC4, QUAD, Blowfish, etc.

Asymmetric encryption It is a complex mode of Encryption, executed using two cryptographic keys, namely Public Key and a Private Key to implement data security. Asymmetric encryption is carried out using algorithms like Diffie-Hellman and RSA.


Also Read>>Top ITIL Interview Questions & Answers


Q15. How would you handle antivirus alerts?


To answer this specific cybersecurity interview question, you would need to use your expertise and experience. A possible reply could be –

On receiving an antivirus alert, one must refer to antivirus policy and then analyze it. If the alert is sourced from a legitimate file, it should be directly whitelisted, but if it comes from a malicious source, it should be deleted. It is mandatory to keep updating the firewall to receive regular antivirus alerts.

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